Backend programming can either be object-oriented (OOP) or functional. The former is the technique that focuses on the creation of objects. With object-oriented programming, statements must be executed in a particular order. Popular OOP languages include Java, .NET, and Python.
Functional backend programming is a more action-based technique. Functional programming uses a declarative language, which means that statements can be executed in any order. It is commonly used for data science, and popular languages are SQL, F#, and R.
Let's take a look at some specific backend development programming languages.
Java is the world's most popular programming language. Not only is Java extremely versatile (its use spans from smartphones to smart cards); it has also been used by developers for over 20 years. What makes Java so versatile is the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Java backend technologies can be used to achieve a lot of objectives, including these and more:
• (Android) mobile application development;
• website development;
• database connectivity;
• image processing;
• GUI based programs;
PHP powers 78.2% of all websites whose server-side programming language we know. In 1995, the language was first released when there were few options for building dynamic websites. PHP can be used to:
• collect data;
• generate dynamic page content;
• send and receive cookies;
• write command-line scripting;
• write server-side scripting;
• write desktop applications.
- .NET (C#, VB).
Made open source in 2016, .NET can integrate with iOS and Android by way of .NET Core. The code is highly stable and reliable, making it a popular choice for businesses. C# is a high-level computer language, which means it allows developers to write programs that are independent of a particular type of computer. VB is a programming language that uses a graphical user interface (GUI) to modify code written in the BASIC programming language. .NET can be used to build:
• desktop applications;
• create mobile apps;
• build web applications and games;
• work with Big Data, and more.
Ruby on Rails (or Ruby) is a web development language built on top of the Ruby programming language. Ruby on Rails has a set of tools to create basic tasks (e.g. you can create a basic blog with one line of code). Ruby can be used to:
• automate repetitive tasks;
• build web applications;
• build mobile applications and games;
• create prototypes and more.
Python has a versatile programming language that is used for both web and desktop development. Python has a syntax that is simple and easy to understand compared to other backend languages. Python can be used to:
• cross-platform shell scripting;
• quick automation;
• simple web development.
Structured Query Language or SQL (pronounced as 'sequel') is the most common query language. SQL is used to interact with databases. SQL can be used to:
• and create databases.
• build websites;
• mobile apps;
• desktop applications;
• web servers;
• presentations, and more.